Objective: There are several comparative studies that were conducted to explain the specific properties of oral tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). However, apical papilla stem cells derived from supernumerary teeth (ST-APSCs) have not been characterized for their MSC properties yet.
Materials and Methods: In the present study, ST-APSCs were isolated and characterized from a nonsyndromic male patient to evaluate the MSC characteristics. Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) and ST-APSCs were isolated and characterized for mesenchymal surface markers. Cells were differentiated into osteo-, chondro-, and adipogenic cell types.
Results: Both cell types expressed the MSC surface markers. When DPSCs and ST-APSCs were cultured in differentiation media promoting transformation to osteo-, chondro-, and adipo-genic lineages, both showed calcium mineralization, chondrogenic mass formation, and lipid accumulation. However, DPSCs derived from a wisdom tooth demonstrated more differentiation potential to osteo- and chondro-genic cell types compared to ST-APSCs.
Conclusion: Overall, ST-APSCs were characterized by their MSC properties and were able to differentiate into three cell lineages. However, they were less potent for osteo- and chondro-genic cell lineage specification compared to DPSCs derived from a wisdom tooth.