ISSN: 2149-2247 | E-ISSN: 2149-2549
Erciyes Medical Journal Spreading of Antimicrobial Resistance Across Clinical Borders [Erciyes Med J]
Erciyes Med J. 2019; 41(3): 238-243 | DOI: 10.14744/etd.2019.99075

Spreading of Antimicrobial Resistance Across Clinical Borders

Elisavet Stavropoulou1, Christine Tsigalou2, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou3
1Department of Medecine Interne, Centre University Hospitalier Vaudois, Vaud, Switzerland
2Laboratory of Microbiology, Democritus University of Thrace, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandroupolis, Greece
3Department of Microbiology, Laboratory of Hygiene and Environmental Protection, Democritus University of Thrace, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, Alexandroupolis, Greece

Spreading of antibiotic resistance is effective via many routes and is dependent on the setting. Moreover, poor hygiene conditions, poor sanitation, as well as inadequate infection control contribute to the spreading of resistant bacteria in health care and industrial facilities, in the community as well as in animal production. Bacteria are present in any environment and bacterial resistance disseminate across the world. Animals receiving antibiotics, they carry antibiotic resistant bacteria and are spread to humans through food or animal contact. Vegetables may be contaminated with antibiotic-resistant bacteria coming from animal manure fertilizers. Overuse or misuse of antibiotics by humans is another major issue. Production of safe food especially of animal origin is important. In this vein, a holistic controlling in all different steps of the production line must be done as microorganisms manifest their presence in foods. Bacterial biofilms dominion our lives, as they are ubiquitous in every environment. Conjugation seems to be the mechanism related in biofilms transfer genes within biofilms or between bacterial communities. Eradicating the problem of antibiotic resistance could be approached by collaboration of authorities, bodies, industrials, veterinarians and doctors as the economic and social challenges emerging from AMR are important. Hereby, we expose the major ways across clinical borders resistant bacteria can sprea.

Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, biofilms, food chain, resistant bacteria, antibiotics.

Elisavet Stavropoulou, Christine Tsigalou, Eugenia Bezirtzoglou. Spreading of Antimicrobial Resistance Across Clinical Borders. Erciyes Med J. 2019; 41(3): 238-243

Corresponding Author: Christine Tsigalou, Greece
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